Resources On:

Women In Mongolia


Rebecca's Question:
I have been studying Mongolia for over 3 years now and have had little luck in finding information concerning women. Especially, women warriors. If at all possible, I would love to know what sources you used for these articles.

Lyn's Answer:
I'm sorry to say that I cannot point you to one terrific source. My write-up came from a various of places, and from bits and pieces in each source. Following are some of the sources I used:

1) A writeup I got off the WEB called "Women of the Mongol Court."

2) Fatima Mernissi, The Forgotten Queens of Islam, University of Minnesota Press, 1993, has a section on the Mongol Khatuns.

3) David Jones, Women Warriors: A History, Brassey's,1997, mentions a Koquz Khatun who led an army into battle conjointly with her husband. And Mandughai Khatun in 1470 took the field to defend the khanate for her 5 year old son. Also Goland Khatun who died beside her husband in battle in 1696. His source seems come from Chinese sources quoted in Florence Ayscough, Chinese Women, Decapo Press, NY, 1975.

4) H.H. Vreeland, Mongol Community and Kinship Structure and Fred Barth, Nomads of South Persia - both have some information on the history of women.

5) A book by Rober Byron, The Road to Oxiana, Picador Travel Classics, London 1981 is a travel book written in 1937 which does, nonetheless, include historic information. He has a fair amount on Gohar Shad and also said that Timur's first wife rode at her husband's side through his early hardship and adventures.

6) I Also have seen a film Johanna d'Arc of Mongolia by the German director Ulrike Ottinger, 1989, color 35 mm. It is a fantasy adventure tracing the encounter between 7 western women travelers who met a band of Mongol horsewomen led by Prince Ululm Iga!

7) A fiction book, Daughter of Xanadu, follows the adventures of one of the many grandchildren of Khubilai Khan. See our review.

Check out our biography on Sorghaghtani Beki, Mother of Great Khans

Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on this website
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