My father reserved for himself the waging of wars against the barbarians, while he entrusted to his mother the administration of state affairs, the choosing of civil servants, and the fiscal management of the empire's revenues and expenses. One might perhaps, in reading this, blame my father's decision to entrust the imperial government to the gyneceum. But once you understood the ability of this woman, her excellence, her good sense, and her remarkable capacity for hard work, you would turn from criticism to admiration.
For my grandmother really had the gift of conducting the affairs of state. She knew so well how to organize and administer that she was capable of governing not only the Roman Empire but also every other kingdom under the sun....She was very shrewd in seizing on whatever was called for, and clever in carrying it out with certitude. Not only did she have an outstanding intelligence, but her powers of speech matched it. She was a truly persuasive orator, in no way wordy or long-winded...
She was ripe in years when she ascended the imperial throne, at the moment when her mental powers were at their most vigorous...
As for her compassion toward the poor and the lavishness of her hand toward the destitute, how can words describe these things? Her house was a shelter for her needy relatives, and it was no less a haven for strangers....Her expression, which revealed her true character, demanded the worship of the angels but struck terror among demons..."
(From, The Writings of Medieval Women, vol. 14, translator and editor, M. Thiebaux, Garland Library of Medieval Literature, NY, 1987)
| Empress Wu Zetian | Queen Sondok | Murasaki Shikibu |
| The Trung Sisters | Sorghaghtani Beki | Mirabai | Nur Jahan |
Three Transforming Poets - Iran
| Eleanor of Aquitaine | Shagrat al-Durr | Melisende | Anna Comnena |
| Great Women Rulers | More Women Rulers |
| Notable Women (1000 C.E.) | Empress Adelaide |
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Women in World History Curriculum